14 - 16 March 2017 // Nuremberg, Germany

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Zoom product LOGO_aiT Worst-Case Execution Time Analyzers

aiT Worst-Case Execution Time Analyzers

LOGO_aiT Worst-Case Execution Time Analyzers

aiT Worst-Case Execution Time Analyzers

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aiT WCET Analyzers statically compute tight bounds for the worst-case execution time (WCET) of tasks in real-time systems. They directly analyze binary executables and take the intrinsic cache and pipeline behavior into account.

The challenge
In real-time systems, timely task completion is of the essence. Each real-time task has to be completed within a specified time frame in order to ensure that the system works correctly. In other words, it is essential that the WCET of each task is known.

However, computing the WCET is a challenge:

  • Testing by repeatedly measuring the execution time of a task is not only tedious, but also typ­i­cally not safe. It is often impossible to prove that the conditions determining maximum exe­cu­tion time have been taken into account.
  • Modern processor components such as caches and pipelines complicate the task of de­ter­mining the WCET considerably, since the execution time of a single instruction may depend on the execution history.
  • Analysis methods that do not consider cache and pipeline behavior typically over­estimate the WCET by several orders of magnitude, thus leading to a substantial waste of hardware re­sources.

The solution
aiT WCET Analyzers provide the solution to these problems: they statically analyze a task’s in­trinsic cache and pipeline behavior based on formal cache and pipeline mod­els. This enables correct and tight upper bounds to be computed for the worst-case execution time.

aiT was designed in the IST project DAEDALUS according to the re­quirements of Airbus France for validating the timing behavior of crit­i­cal avionics software, including the flight control software of the A380, the world’s largest passenger aircraft.

The analyzers are based on the technique of abstract interpretation. A graphical user interface supports the visualization of the worst-case program path and the interactive inspection of all pipeline and cache states at arbitrary program points.

Your benefits

  • aiT-computed bounds are extremely tight and thus reflect the ac­tu­al performance of your system. Ensuring deadline adherence is not done at the expense of hardware re­sources.
  • aiT-computed bounds are valid for all inputs and each execution of a task. Extensive timing testing is a thing of the past.
  • aiT directly analyzes binary executables. It is widely in­de­pendent of the compiler and source code language used. This means no mod­i­fi­cation of your toolchain or the system’s operational behavior and performance is required.

aiT supports tight integration with many state-of-the-art development tools.

aiT can also be combined with other analysis tools from AbsInt (e.g. StackAnalyzer for stack usage analysis) in a single intuitive user interface called a³.

CompCert - verified compilation

LOGO_CompCert - verifiziertes Kompilieren


LOGO_TimingExplorer - frühzeitige WCET-Abschätzung

TimingProfiler - timing estimates

LOGO_TimingProfiler - Laufzeitabschätzungen

ValueAnalyzer: Static Value Analysis

LOGO_ValueAnalyzer - statische Value-Analyse

aiT Worst-Case Execution Time Analyzers is assigned to following product groups:

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